Learning objectives
Chapter 20:

1. Identify the typical physical changes of middle adulthood, and discuss their impact.

2. Describe how the functions of the sense organs and vital body systems change during middle adulthood.

3. Identify the typical changes that occur in the sexual-reproductive system during middle adulthood, and and discuss the current thinking regarding hormone replacement therapy.

4. Differentiate four measures of health.

5. Explain the concepts of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

6. Describe the relationship between certain lifestyle factors-smoking, alcohol use, nutrition, weight, and exercise-and health.

7. Explain how variations in health are related to ethnicity, and discuss possible reasons for these variations.

Learning objectives
Chapter 21:

1. Briefly trace the history of the controversy regarding adult intelligence, including the findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal research and how cross-sequential research compensates for the shortcomings of the other methods.

2. Distinguish between fluid and crystallized intelligence, and explain how each is affected by age.

3. Differentiate the three fundamental forms of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg, and discuss how each tends to vary over the life span.

4. Discuss how Schaie's five primary abilities are subject to cohort effects.

5. Outline Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence, noting the impact of genes, culture, and aging on the various dimensions of intelligence.

6. Explain the concept of selective optimization with compensation.

7. Describe how the cognitive processes of experts differ from those of novices.

8. Discuss the impact of stressors on development during middle adulthood and differentiate two forms of coping.


Learning objectives
Chapter 22:

1. Describe the Big Five cluster of personality traits, and discuss reasons for their relative stability during adulthood.

2. Explain the concept of an ecological niche, noting how it interacts with personality.

3. Explain the tendency toward gender role convergence during middle age, and discuss problems with the concept of the midlife crisis.

4. Discuss how and why marital relationships tend to change during middle adulthood.

5. Discuss the impact of divorce and remarriage during middle adulthood, including reasons for the high divorce rate among the remarried, and describe the dilemma faced by middle-aged women in the "marriage market."

6. Characterize the relationship between middle-aged adults and the older and younger generations and between middle-age siblings.

7. Differentiate three patterns of grandparent-grandchild relationships, and discuss historical trends in their prevalence.

8. Discuss the reasons for and the value of grandparents becoming surrogate parents.

9. Discuss whether middle-aged adults are accurately described as the "sandwich generation."

10. Describe how the balance among work, family, and self often shifts during middle adulthood.